Saturday, August 31, 2019

History of Cement and Cement Mixers

Cement mixers are a way of carrying and mixing cement while you are working to repair a foundation, sidewalk, or building a mold. Cement is mostly known to be made out of asphalt, which stands for secure in the ancient Greek language.

Cement is a mixture of several different types of materials. This includes sand, limestone and asphalt. Asphalt and cement were found to be used beginning in 625 BC in Babylon as well as in Greece. The idea of this secure foundation was lost for centuries, and began to be experimented with beginning in the 1500’s. After much exploration, European’s found that this type of material was being used in Venezuela. They took the idea and began to use cement for re-caulking ships.

Road building using cement became popular in America in the middle of the 1800’s. This was part of the revolution that began with the industrial age.  Cement was first taken from natural resources, such as the lakes that were in Trinidad. However, by the beginning of the 1900’s, the mixture for roads and pavement began to be a mixture of several different types of rocks.

Cement mixers first became popular in the 1920’s, when automobiles started to become popular. Mixers were first seen as trays that were heated over coal fires. Aggregate was dried in this tray, than asphalt would be poured on top of it. This mix was then stirred by hand. Drums were soon after invented to be used, and soon wheels were added in order to make it easier for the building of roadways and sidewalks. These were known as floating screeds and were popular until the 1960s.

By the 1970s, these types of construction were becoming a concern with the environment. This caused even better technology to be produced in relation to cement mixers. The mixtures that are being used now have an increased improvement with mixture, allowing for less noise, skid resistance, and weather resistance.

Because of the ability to use the cement mixer in relation to the types of roads and sidewalks that are being built, it is allowing for greater roadways and sidewalks. It has also caused the major modes of transportation to be supported by this type of rock. More than ninety-four percent of the ground that is used for transportation is made out of cement. The cement mixer plays an important role in making sure that this secure surface is made.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

Nine Ways Biodiesel is Being Used

With gas prices increasing and growing environmental awareness, the need to consider alternate energy and fuel sources are becoming a necessity. One alternative is the use of Biodiesel fuel, which is becoming more and more popular today.

Because Biodiesel is a cleaner-burning diesel fuel, made from 100% natural, 100% renewable vegetable sources, its uses in today's society may surprise you. Below are nine ways Biodiesel is being used. Some of which you may never have realized.

1) Biodiesel Car Rental

Yes that's right. A Maui and Los Angeles car rental rents cars that run on Biodiesel. These cars get between 400 and 800 miles per tank! Not bad when consider the price of gas these days.

2) Home heating fuel

More people are taking a look at Biodiesel as an alternative for heating their home. Most oil-fired or boiler furnaces can use Biodiesel (B20), which is a fuel made of 80 percent traditional heating oil and 20 percent Biodiesel. Some people are getting their furnaces adapted to be able to burn B100, a fuel made entirely of vegetable oils, which burns much cleaner than traditional heating oil.

3) Electricity Generation

Diesel generators that produce electricity are now running on Biodiesel fuel. A superior alternative to the typical coal burning electricity generating plants currently being used in the United States. Running on Biodiesel is an inexpensive, clean and renewable way of creating electricity.

4) Trucking Industry

More and more truckers are switching from diesel fuel to Biodiesel fuel. The benefits are numerous not to mention the advantage of helping the environment and reducing our dependency on foreign oil, while saving money.

5) Agriculture

Not only a producer of Biodiesel, but also a consumer. Tractors, reapers, tillers, pickers, conveyors, generators, pumps, and irrigation systems which normally uses diesel fuel, now use Biodiesel to fuel their work, bringing agriculture full circle from producer to consumer.

6) Marine Vehicles

Commercial fleets such as ferries, recreational yachts, sailboats, and motor boats are all candidates for Biodiesel. For example Pacific Whale Foundation, located in Hawaii, use Biodiesel bin their boats.

7) Tax Incentive

The IRS is offering tax incentives to anyone that produce and use Biodiesel fuel. The US Government is working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by giving producers of Biodiesel fuel government funds. The tax incentive works to help tax paying customers by lowering the cost of the fuel 
bill.

8) Lubrication Additive

Because Biodiesel is a better lubricant than current low-sulfur petroleum, fuel injectors and other types of fuel pumps can rely on Biodiesel fuel for lubrication. With the right additives, engine performance can also be enhanced, making engines last longer. Other numerous applications can also make use of it's lubricate properties, such as concrete forms and asphalt trucks. Its solvent properties also make it a safe parts cleaner, reducing skin and eye irritation associated with other cleaners. 

9) Cleaner Environment

Biodiesel reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions by up to 80%. Because of this, Biodiesel has the potential to reduce air toxics and cancer causing compounds. Something we all can live with! If spilled, it will quickly degrade into natural organic residues, without polluting the environment.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

Why We Use Chemical Energy More Than Any Other Form Of Energy?

Of all the forms of energy that humanity has developed in the past few hundred years of mass production, chemical energy is by far the most commonly used. Whether in the batteries that power all of our handheld devices and their chemical reactions, or in the millions of uses we’ve developed for fossil fuels and their numerous chemical reactions, chemical energy is a staple of our daily lives. Coal is burned for energy throughout the world, gasoline combusts every day in our vehicles, and natural gasses are burned for heating energy every night. 

It’s on a very basic level that chemical energy is stored. A chemical compound is composed of very simple collections of atoms, bound together. When the bond between these atoms loosens, a chemical reaction takes place and new combinations are created. Very simple reactions, such as the oxidation of metals occurs almost constantly.

However, when a chemical reaction occurs that is exothermic, in which energy is actually released and the chemical compound is reduced, it is possible to harvest that energy for our everyday use. The very simple processes that we observe every day such as the warming of the ground when the sun beats down on it are the same basic concepts that apply to these chemical reactions. For humanity to fully harness this chemical energy though, it’s necessary to understand just what happens and how we can make it happen.

Chemical energy is stored in every bond between atoms in a molecule. If a molecule is broken down and reformed into new molecules, energy is released. This kind of reaction is present in every chemical compound we see; however it is the yield of energy that differs. Food, for example, is chemically broken down by our bodies and taken apart to obtain energy within our bodies. After the energy is removed from the food, the new molecules are separated, energy absorbed for our everyday use, and waste removed.

Another example of a simple chemical reaction used to obtain energy, is in the photosynthetic process a plant undertakes to garner energy from the sun. So much energy is present in the light of the sun that a plant is able to take it and apply to existing molecules in its own structure and create new ones with the presence of carbon dioxide and water. 

Chemical energy is the easiest and most efficient energy source to store and utilize, if only because it is so readily available, found in nearly everything we use. Chemical energy, as used by our bodies has been the source of life for billions of years and the developments in chemical energy technology has led to long lasting rechargeable batteries and hopefully in renewable energy resources in the future.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Steel Dharmendra Pradhan: India Will Become Top Consumer in a Decade


Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Steel Dharmendra Pradhan has launched the commencement of work for 10th City Gas Distribution (CGD) bidding round which will cover 50 Geographical Areas (GAs) in 124 districts. Prime Minister Narendra Modi had launched the 10th CGD bidding Round on 22nd November, 2018.  Pradhan had distributed Letters of Intent to 12 successful bidders of the round on 1st March, 2019.  After the completion of the 10th round, over 70% of the country’s population and 52.73% of the area will be covered under the CGD. As per the minimum work program approved by the PNGRB for the 10th round, 2.02 crore PNG domestic connections will be provided, 3578 CNG stations will open, and 0.58 lakh Inch-km steel pipeline will be laid.

Speaking on the occasion, Pradhan said that with the 9th and 10th rounds, the country is making a giant leap in the CGD. He said that in last 5 years, the number of domestic PNG connections, CNG vehicles and CNG stations have more than doubled. He said that India is the 3rd largest energy consumer of the world, and will become top consumer in a decade. The government aims to provide reliable, affordable, sustainable and universal access to clean fuel to all. The present share of gas in the energy mix in the country is 6.2% compared to 24% globally, and the aim is to increase share of natural gas to 15% by 2030. The Minister said that with rising consumption of energy in the country, the share of CNG will increase the most. He said that the country will continue to harness multiple sources of energy, including fossil fuels, renewables, EVs and gas. The hydrogen fuel driven vehicles have already been introduced in the national capital and several auto manufacturers have introduced new CNG models, the minister added. Even the coal will continue to have relevance, as Coal gasification plants are being set up. On the policy enablers to promote gas usage in India, he said that CGD has been granted ‘public Utility’ status.


The minister said that over 5 lakh crore rupees are being invested in gas infrastructure, which includes exploration, distribution, marketing, regasification, pipeline network laying, etc.  Domestic gas production was 32.87 billion cubic metre in 2018-19, and is likely to go up to 39.3 billion cubic metre in 2020-21. Present LNG terminal capacity of 38.8 MMTPA will be augmented to 52.5 MMTPA in next 3-4 years. Long term contracts have been signed for importing LNG, and its sources are being diversified. The gas grid presently is 16,788 km, and work is in progress for additional 14,788 km.

He said that suitable ambience is being created and bold policy decisions are being taken to ensure that country moves on the path of progress, import dependency comes down, and our farmers(Annadatta) become Urjadatta. On the issue of waste to energy, Pradhan said that ethanol blending in petrol has gone upto 6% from 1%, and we have to take it to 20%. Bio-diesel is being promoted so as Recycle Used Cooking Oil (RUCO). 2G ethanol plants are being set up to convert surplus foodgrains into fuel. Compressed Bio-gas is another field of development. Reiterating the Government’s commitment to meet the COP-21 targets, the Minister said that the country will leapfrog next year from BS-IV to BS-VI. He said that the issues concerning the setting up of Gas infrastructure are being sorted out in consultation with the state governments.  The Minister also stressed on conservation and efficiency aspects, saying that new PNG burners can save upto 40%, compared to retrofitted burners.

Source: News Intervention Bureau

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

The Coal Seams Were Laid Down Over Millions of Years

One explanation used by young-earth proponents to explain that all coal seams formed during the Flood is the concept of the floating forest, which can be found on the Answers in Genesis website, written by Carl Wieland. There are actually four articles on the web that we will consider when discussing the floating forest. The other three are:

Too Much Coal for a Young Earth,” by Gerhard Sch√∂nknecht and Siegfried Scherer

Coal Beds and Noah's Flood,” by Andrew Snelling

Patterns of Ocean Circulation Over the Continents During Noah’s Flood,” by John Baumgardner and Daniel Barnette

Please see the footnotes for the web addresses to these articles. First let's look at the possibility of floating forests existence. From the evidence presented, I can see no reason why they can't exist. It is certainly plausible that there may have been water-borne forests in the past. That's not to say there are not logical problems with this theory. One is the claim that all plants with a radial root pattern are water-borne plants. One only needs to look at the Sequoia tree of California to dispense with this statement. The tallest of trees in the world (up to 300 feet) has a radial root pattern. In fact, its roots only go into the ground vertically a distance of 6 feet! 

However, let's be nice for the time being and agree that the floating forest idea is possible.

This floating forest idea is used to explain that the 230+ coal beds in the Ruhr district of Germany, scattered throughout 4,000 meters of strata, came to exist during the 375 days of Noah's flood. The geological explanation put forward by old-earth creationists is that these beds formed over millions of years, as the sea levels fluctuated, causing the land to be covered, then uncovered with water repetitively. However, the young-earth explanation is with the floating forests, which in the cataclysmic event of the Flood, were rapidly buried, and covered with sediment. (See "Too Much Coal...) Unfortunately, this theory does not wash.

Think about the model. The Flood starts, and the floating forest over Germany is sank by the turbulent waters. Give it a day, in which the material that covers the flooded trees is deposited, and then another floating forest has been brought into place by the currents, and it sinks in the same spot the next day! This is repeated 230 times, up to a thickness of 4,000 meters! So imagine this picture...you have 230 floating forests, all lined up in a row, awaiting their chance to sink in the exact same spot, and then be rapidly covered over with sediment before the next forest sinks. This process all happens in about 375 days! Even assuming it happened, where did the sediment come from?

This is explained on the Answers in Genesis website by John Baumgardner and Daniel Barnette in their article referenced above. They show that based on their calculations, the waters of the flood covering a sphere (earth) would move with a velocity (current) of 70 meters per second, which they claim is more than enough to cause erosion to create these beds. I cannot confirm their calculations, but it introduces two obvious errors that don't require a rocket scientist to figure out.

What are the errors? First, if you have the water turbulence they calculated, then all the floating forests would have immediately sank! You no longer have the neat and orderly progression of 230 forests into the area of Germany to create the coal fields. In fact, by their model, if you look at the coal fields of the world, they should all be only one coal seam thick, and not multiple seams like we actually see. And while their theory would account for thin seams, it does nothing to explain a 100-foot thick coal seam, which would require many forests together!

The second error...remember we have 70 meter per second currents. At that speed, none of the fine rock materiel would be able to settle on the ocean floor...it would stay in suspension in the water. Yet when you look at the rock layers between the coal seams, they are fine grained (sandstones and limestones). So then, the only way this could happen is if God sank a forest with the turbulent water, then calmed the water and made it still for a day, so the sediment would sink to the bottom, then re-start the current to bring in the next forest to sink, sink it, stop the current, etc., etc. Sure, God could have done it, but there's no logical reason to.

Furthermore, with rapid burial as they suggest, you would see perfectly fossilized trees in the rock beds above the coal, because the rapid burial would preserve the original state of the trees. Of course, the current would have stripped away the leaves and small branches, but there would still be many of these petrified trees left. 

OK, one final thought on the floating forest. They would have to follow the ocean currents. They probably would not have survived more than a few years, as the current took each one into the Arctic or Antarctic to freeze. And, if they existed, then some must have floated into the polar regions and been frozen. Has any explorations of the earth's polar caps discovered a floating forest frozen in the ice? Not that I know of.

Some may try to explain this away by saying the forests were anchored to shore, and thus did not circulate with the currents. This however introduces two more problems. First, the waves would occasionally break them free, and they would float off...hence we would find some frozen ones in the polar regions. Second, I seriously doubt that you could get a tree to stand one-hundred feet vertically in the air, while being pounded by the surf! You don't need a computer model to prove it...its just not possible.

The article "Coal Beds and Noah's Flood" by Andrew Snelling attempts to show that it is possible for all the world's coal to have been produced from the plants which existed at the time of Noah's flood? Even if he is correct, it doesn't matter, because there is no model by which it can be laid down to create 230+ separate coal beds in one 4,000 meter thick strata of rock! Therefore, the calculations in this article are meaningless, as are the coal volume calculations of the "Too Much Coal" mentioned above.

Conclusion

There is no possible way that the coal beds of the Ruhr district in Germany were created by the Flood of Noah. The logical conclusion of the theory of young-earth creationists says there should only be single layers of thin coal throughout the world. However, there are many areas of the world with multiple seams divided by other rock layers. Concerning thickness, even being generous, a floating forest would yield no thicker seams than 5 meters, yet there are many coal seams exceeding this thickness. 

Even assuming Wieland's discussion of the tree composition (roots, appendages, etc) is correct, it doesn't amount to a hill of beans. If you can't deposit them in the strata the way they are seen today, his conclusions are meaningless.

The only logical conclusion is that coal seams were laid down over millions of years, just like the geologists have told us all along.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

Top 7 Tips on How to Think Like a Coalbed Methane Professional

More investors are now inquiring about Coalbed Methane exploration companies. Just as uranium miners were flying well below the radar screen in early 2004, coalbed methane exploration may very well be the next very hot sector later this year and next. Historically, coalbed methane gas endangered coal miners, resulting in alarming fatalities early in the previous century. This is the fate suffered today by many Chinese coal miners in the smaller, private coal mines. Typically, the methane gas trapped in coal seams was flared out, before underground mining began, in order to prevent those explosions. Rising natural gas prices have long since ended that practice.

Today, coalbed methane companies are turning a centuries-long nuisance and byproduct into a valuable resource. About 9 percent of total US natural gas production comes from the natural gas found in coal seams. Because natural gas prices have soared, along with the bull markets found in uranium, oil, and precious and base metals, coalbed methane has come into play. It is after all a natural gas. But because it is outside the realm of the petroleum industry, coalbed methane, or CBM as many industry insiders call it, is called the unconventional gas. It may be unconventional today, but as the industry continue to grow by leaps and bounds, on a global scale, CBM may soon achieve some respect. Please remember that a few years ago, there was very little cheerleading about nuclear energy. Today, positive news items are running far better than ten to one in favor of that power source.

CBM is the natural gas contained in coal. It consists primarily of methane, the gas we use for home heating, gas-fired electrical generation, and industrial fuel. The energy source within natural gas is methane (chemically, it is CH4), whether it comes from the oil industry or from coal beds.

CBM has several strong points in its favor. The gases produced from CBM fields are often nearly 90 percent methane. Which type of gas has more impurities? No, it isn’t the natural, or conventional, gas you thought it might be. Frequently, CBM gas has fewer impurities than the “natural gas” produced from conventional wells. CBM exploration is done at a more shallow level, between 250 and 1000 meters, than conventional gas wells, which sometimes are drilled below 5,000 meters. CBM wells can last a long time – some could produce for 40 years or longer.

Natural gas is created by the compression of underground organic matter combined with the earth’s high temperatures thousands of meters below surface. Conventional gas fills the spaces between the porous reservoir rocks. The coalification process is similar but the result is different: both the coalbed and the methane gas are trapped in the coal seams. Instead of filling the tiny spaces between the rocks, the coal gas is within the coal seams.

One of the past problems associated with CBM exploration was the reliance upon expensive horizontal drilling techniques to extract the methane gas from the coal seams. Advanced fracturing techniques and breakthrough horizontal drilling techniques have increased CBM success ratios. As a result, a growing number of exploration companies are pursuing the early bull market in CBM. Market capitalizations for many of these companies mirror similar “early plays” we mentioned during our mid 2004 uranium coverage (June through October, 2004). Industry experts told us there would be a uranium bull market. Now, we are hearing the same forecasts about CBM.

SEVEN TIPS BY DR. DAVID MARCHIONI

We asked Dr. David Marchioni to provide our subscribers with his 7 Tips to help investors better understand what to look for, before investing in a CBM play. Dr. Marchioni helped co-author the CBM textbook, An Assessment of Coalbed Methane Exploration Projects in Canada, published by the Geological Survey of Canada. He is also president of Petro-Logic Services in Calgary, whose clients have included the Canadian divisions of Apache, BP, BHP, Burlington, Devon, El Paso Energy, and Phillips Petroleum, among others. He is also a director of Pacific Asia China Energy and is overseeing the company’s CBM exploration program in China.

Our series of telephone and email interviews began while Dr. Marchioni sat on a drill rig in Alberta’s foothills, the Manville region, until he finished outlining his top 7 tips, or advices, on how to think like a CBM professional.

1) COAL SEAM THICKNESS

Is there a reasonable thickness of coal? You should find out how thick the coal seams are. With thickness, you get the regional extent of the resource. For example, there must be a minimum thickness into which one can drill a horizontal well.

2) GAS CONTENT

Typically, gas content is expressed as cubic feet of gas per ton of coal. Find how thick it is and how far it is spread. Then, you have a measure of unit gas content. Between coal seam thickness and gas content, you can determine the size of the resource. You have to look at both thickness and gas content. It’s of no use to have high gas content if you don’t have very much coal. The industry looks at resource per unit area. In other words, how much gas is in place per acre, hectare, or square mile? In the early stage of the CBM exploration, this really all you have to work with in evaluating its potential.

3) MATURITY LEVEL OF THE COAL

This is the measure of the stage the coal has reached between the mineral’s inception as peat. Peat matures to become lignite. Later, it develops into bituminous coal, then semi-anthracite and finally anthracite.

There is a progressive maturation of coal as a geological time continuum and the earth’s temperature, depending upon depth. By measuring certain parameters, you can determine where it is in the chemical process. For instance, the chemistry of lignite is different from that of anthracite. This phrasing is called “coal rank” in coal industry terminology.

4) PERMEABILITY

When you are beginning to think about CBM production, this and the next item must be evaluated. How permeable is the CBM property? You want permeability, otherwise the gas can’t flow. If the coal isn’t permeable at all, you can never generate gas. The gas has to be able to flow. If it is extremely permeable, then you can perhaps never pump enough water. The water just keeps getting replaced from the large area surrounding the well bore. The water will just keep coming, and you will never lower the pressure so the gas can be released.

5) WATER

In a very high proportion of CBM plays, the coal contains quite a lot of water. You have to pump the water off in order to reduce the pressure in the coal bed. Gas is held in coal by pressure. The deeper you go, typically the more gas you get, because the pressure is higher. The way to induce the gas to start flowing is to pump the water out of the coal and lower the “water head” of pressure. How much water are we going to produce? Are we going to have to dispose of it? If it’s fresh, then there may be problems with regulatory agencies. In Alberta, the government has restrictions on extracting fresh water because others might want to use it. One could be tapping into a zone that people use as water wells for farms and rural communities. Both water quality and water volume matter. For example, Manville water is very salient so nobody wants to put it into a river; this water is pushed back down into existing oil and gas wells in permeable zones (but which are also not connected to the coal).

6) FUNDING

To be able to access land and do some initial drilling, i.e. the first round of financing, it would cost a minimum of C$4 million. This would include some geological work and drilling at least five or six wells. In Horseshoe, that would cost around C$4 million (say 1st round of finance); in Manville, about C$9 million. This is under the assumption that the company doesn’t buy the land. The land in western Canada is very expensive and tightly held. Much of the work is done as a “farm in” drilling on land held by another for a percentage of the play. (Editor’s note: During a previous interview, Dr. Marchioni commented about his preference for Pacific Asia China Energy’s land position in China because comparable land in western Canada would have cost “$100 million or more.”

7) INFRASTRUCTURE

The geology only tells you what’s there, and what the chances of success are. You then have to pursue it. Can we sell it? Gas prices are “local,” meaning they vary from country to country, depending whether it is locally produced and in what abundance (or lack thereof). How much can we extract? How much is it going to cost us to get it out of the ground? Are there readily available services for this property? Will you have to helicopter a rig onto the property at some incredible price just to drill it? Will you have to build a pipeline to transport the gas? Or, in China as an example, are there established convoys for trucking LNG across hundreds of kilometers?

One addition, which we have mentioned in previous articles, and especially in the Market Outlook Journal, “Quality of Management Attracts PR,” it is important that the CBM company have experienced management. This would mean a management team that includes those who have gotten results, not only a veteran exploration geologist but a team that can sell the story and bring in the mandatory financing to move the project into production.

There are two primary reasons why many of these coalbed methane plays are being taken seriously. First, the macroeconomic reason is that rising energy costs have driven companies in the energy fields to pursue any economic projects to help fill the energy gap. Coalbed methane has a more than two decades of proof in the United States. The excitement has spread to Canada, China and India, where CBM exploration is beginning to take off. Second, the fundamental reason is that exploration work has already been done in delineating coal deposits. There are, perhaps, 800 coal basins globally, with less than 50 CBM producing basins. In other words, there is the potential for growth in this sector.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

Ungrateful, the Coal Industry Plays a Large Part in the U.S. Economy for Hundreds of Years

You may not realize it, but the coal industry plays a large part in the U.S. economy.

One major way coal affects the economy is through electricity. The majority of America's electricity comes from coal. So when coal prices are low, like they are right now, electricity is cheaper and the lower prices spur economic growth.

Electricity is a crucial part of American life. In fact, it is a $200 billion a year commodity, making it the largest commodity in the United States.

When the prices for large commodities, like electricity, stay low or go down, inflation stays low. So, commodity price fluctuations prove to be strong economic indicators.

The lower electric rates from low coal prices can affect inflation rates now and in the future. And low interest rates can help protect the savings and investments of millions of Americans.

In addition, new technology is linked to electricity usage and thus the economy. The increasing purchase and use of technological advances, like computers, cell phones and personal data organizers, greatly increases consumption of electricity from coal. Therefore, when consumers purchase these items, they drive the economy in two ways: with their purchase and with their electricity usage.

America's need for electricity from coal can also be seen in the almost direct relationship between electricity use and economic activity. For example, every 1 percent increase in the gross domestic product has caused about a 1 percent increase in electricity demand.

In addition to electricity, coal affects the economy through job creation, revenue and taxes. The coal industry and related business have created more than 90,000 jobs in the United States alone and almost 1 million jobs worldwide.

Thirty-seven billion dollars, or nearly 1 percent of all the earnings of Americans, comes from coal-related work.

The value of coal produced in the United States each year is nearly $18 billion. Coal mining has a combined direct and indirect impact of $161 billion annually on the U.S. economy. This is $596 for every U.S. citizen. 

California and New York are two of the states benefiting most from coal, yet they are not home to any coal mining. In fact, every U.S. state benefits economically from coal. 

Coal businesses pay more than $11 billion in federal taxes each year. Nine billion dollars in coal revenues go to state and local governments annually.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

Mines Reopen Because Coal Becoming Highly Efficient and Safer for the Environment

In the mid-1990s, coal was not king, but today, it may be taking back its throne. Back then, natural gas was at center stage as the preferred energy source of environmentally conscious Americans everywhere.

But in 1998, a slight, yet significant, change occurred. According to a U.S. Department of Energy study, "The trend towards reduced levels of consumer coal stocks was reversed." This change coupled with continuing low prices for coal brought it back to the forefront, revitalizing the coal industry to this day.

For example, more than half of America's electricity is now generated from coal. Coal mines that had been shut down in the 1990s are reopening, and former workers are going back to the mines and getting back to work.

America has a lot of coal to be mined. With 274 billion tons of recoverable reserves, coal is 39 times more abundant than natural gas and 54 times more abundant than oil.

Coal is also becoming safer for the environment. Because of efforts by the coal-based electricity industry, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions have dropped.

The most recent study on these emissions shows that between 1980 and 2001, the sulfur dioxide emission rate dropped 38 percent, and the nitrogen oxide emission rate dropped 32 percent.

The largest source of electricity in the United States, electricity from coal is crucial to America's energy present and future. Quest Minerals and Mining Corp., is playing a major role in the future of the coal industry. Quest acquires and reopens properties in the southeastern United States that produce coal in compliance with Clean Air Act requirements.

Quest recently announced that it has signed and closed its acquisition of Gwenco Inc., through which it gains more than 700 acres of coal leases with almost 13 million tons of coal in place in six seams. Quest plans to reopen two of Gwenco's former drift mines and begin commercial coal production. Coal produced at these mines will be sold to public utility companies in Kentucky and Ohio.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal

Coal Reduces United States Reliance On Expensive Foreign Oil

Recently, the price of a barrel of oil rose to $60, the most expensive price in American history. With the rise in oil prices and constant instability in the Middle East, the United States seems headed for an energy crisis.

But there is an abundant, low-cost energy source located throughout the country. That energy source is coal.

After years of mine shutdowns, there is a renewed interest in coal in the United States. Companies such as Quest Minerals and Mining Corp. are now reopening mines and resuming coal production. 

There are 274 billion tons of coal in mines across the country. That amount of coal could last the United States for about 250 years, considering that the average American uses 7,000 pounds of coal each year. Using this resource decreases dependence of foreign oil and stimulates the economy in several ways.

First, coal stimulates the American economy by maintaining and creating jobs for people that work in the mines and in coal transportation. For each of the four major freight rail lines, coal represents at least 40 percent of the total tonnage hauled each year. Many people are dependent on coal for their livelihood and will remain so if Americans increase their use of coal as an energy source.

Moreover, because coal is a domestic resource, the cost of transporting it is much lower than the cost of importing oil from other nations. Transportation costs of coal are also lower because there are more options for transporting coal from one place to another. Coal is carried by barge and by train.

Using coal is beneficial for more than just jobs and reducing transportation costs. The abundance of coal allows the price to remain stable, unlike oil prices in the volatile Middle East. Commodities like coal, whose costs remain stable or decrease, keep inflation low. Low inflation rates allow Americans to be confident that their savings and investments are safe. 

Another major benefit of coal power is the cost of electricity generated by coal. Generation of coal power costs one-fourth that of natural gas power generation. Businesses using coal power keep their overhead costs low and maximize profitability. Furthermore, coal is used to generate electricity for telecommunications, computers and all other electric-based technologies that boost the American economy. 

The benefits of coal power make it a logical choice for the power source of the future of the United States.

Bumi Resources (IDX:BUMI), is currently acquiring and reopening properties in the southeastern Borneo that produce clean-burning coal in compliance with Clean Air Act requirements.

Coal May Be Still Become the Energy Of the Future

What will be the dominant energy source in the future? Trends are indicating that much of our energy in the future will come from a source you are already familiar with - coal. 

According to U.S. Energy Information Administration forecasts, the consumption of coal worldwide will climb by almost 50 percent during the next 24 years.

In fact, coal may become an important source of hydrogen. Hydrogen is the crucial element in the fuel cells that are now beginning to be used in transportation. These fuel cells will also be a part of all types of power for years to come. They work like a battery, but they do not run down or need recharging. In addition these cells have far lower emissions than any combustion process.

Why is coal in high demand? Current supplies of coal could last the world at least two or three centuries, making it the most abundant energy source. Coal is found all over the world, and of all energy sources, coal is one of the most economical. Human beings have used coal as an energy source throughout their existence.

But unfortunately, if something seems too good to be true, it usually is. So what are coal's major drawbacks? 

The only real drawback with coal is its environmental impact. Thankfully, research and new technology are making coal significantly cleaner and better for the environment. 

Sulfur dioxide emission rates for U.S. coal-based power plants were cut by more than 75 percent between 1970 and 2000. In addition, nitrous oxide emission rates were cut in half. Mercury emissions from power generation have now been controlled. And soon the emission of greenhouse gases due to coal will be drastically lowered. 

Adaro Energy (IDX:ADRO), is currently acquiring and reopening properties in the southeastern Borneo that produce clean-burning coal in compliance with Clean Air Act requirements.

Advertisement

The 10 largest coal producers and exporters in Indonesia:

  1. Bumi Resouces
  2. Adaro Energy
  3. Indo Tambangraya Megah
  4. Bukit Asam
  5. Baramulti Sukses Sarana
  6. Harum Energy
  7. Mitrabara Adiperdana 
  8. Samindo Resources
  9. United Tractors
  10. Berau Coal